Type 2 diabetes is the major cause of end-stage renal disease. In the present decade, 30% of the predicted $1.1 trillion medical costs of dialysis world-wide will result from diabetic nephropathy. There is an unmet need for highly sensitive biomarkers for the detection of diabetic nephropathy.
Currently this disease is not recognized early enough because of inadequate diagnostic methods increasing the chances of nephropathy and microalbuminuria progressing toward end-stage renal disease. Novel, more sensitive biomarkers for the detection of diabetic nephropathy at an early stage and disease progression or regression after drug therapy, is discussed in this paper.